Media Duplication Industry Term Definitions

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AutoRun is a feature of the Microsoft Windows Operating System that automatically launches a program to dictate what actions must be taken when the OS detects new media on the device, such as a CD, DVD, or USB flash drive.

Binary Image Copy

Data in computers or on memory storage devices is stored and transmitted as a series of ones and zeros (also known as Binary). In order for the computer or a memory device to store the image, each pixel is represented by a binary value. When we produce copies, we utilize a binary process. We don’t look at the content as binary data and not files. This allows us to guarantee through the use of a checksum value that the copies are 100% identical to the original and that not a single bit or byte of data has changed from a 0 to a 1 or a 1 to a 0.

Bits & Bytes

A bit (short for "binary digit") is the smallest unit of measurement used to quantify computer data. It contains a single binary value of 0 or 1.

While a single bit can define a boolean value of True (1) or False (0), an individual bit has little other use. Therefore, in computer storage, bits are often grouped together in 8-bit clusters called bytes. Since a byte contains eight bits that each have two possible values, a single byte may have 28 or 256 different values.

The terms "bits" and "bytes" are often confused and are even used interchangeably since they sound similar and are both abbreviated with the letter "B." However, when written correctly, bits are abbreviated with a lowercase "b," while bytes are abbreviated with a capital "B." It is important not to confuse these two terms, since any measurement in bytes contains eight times as many bits. For example, a small text file that is 4 KB in size contains 4,000 bytes, or 32,000 bits.

Generally, files, storage devices, and storage capacity are measured in bytes, while data transfer rates are measured in bits. For instance, an SSD may have a storage capacity of 240 GB, while a download may transfer at 10 Mbps. Additionally, bits are also used to describe processor architecture, such as a 32-bit or 64-bit processor.

Through the use of a checksum value we calculate and record the value, which is a unique calculation based on the exact number of bits or bytes of data on the original and all copies.


Firmware is permanent read-only software programming that is added to a hardware device at the time of manufacturing. It runs user programs on the device that allow the hardware to work properly.

Linux® kernel

The Linux® kernel is the main component of a Linux operating system (OS) and is the core interface between a computer’s hardware and its processes. It communicates between the two, managing resources as efficiently as possible. The kernel is so named because—like a seed inside a hard shell—it exists within the OS and controls all the major functions of the hardware, whether it’s a phone, laptop, server, or any other kind of computer.

Master Checksum

A master checksum is a value used to ensure data is stored or transmitted without error. It is created by calculating the binary values in a block of data using some algorithm and storing the results with the data. It is a unique value made up of numbers and letters. This ensures that the original or master and all copies are 100% identical. If a single bit or byte of data is different, the checksum value will be different.


A partition is a logical division of a hard disk or any memory device that is treated as a separate unit by operating systems and file systems. The operating systems and file systems can manage information on each partition as if it were a distinct hard drive. This allows the drive to operate as several smaller sections to improve efficiency, although it reduces usable space on the hard disk because of additional overhead from multiple operating systems.

Data and files are then written to the file system on the partition. When users boot the OS in a computer, a critical part of the process is to give control to the first sector on the hard disk. This includes the partition table that defines how many partitions will be formatted on the hard disk, the size of each partition, and the address where each disk partition begins. The sector also contains a program that reads the boot sector for the OS and gives it control so that the rest of the OS can be loaded into random access memory.

PMS Color Printing

PMS stands for Pantone Matching System. It is a universal color matching system mainly used for printing in which each color corresponds with a numbered code. Unlike CMYK, PMS colors are pre-mixed with a specific formula of inks before printing.

Read & Write Protection

Read and write protection is the ability of a hardware device or software program to prevent new information from being written or old information being changed. In other words, information can be read, but nothing can be added or modified.

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