Essentially, you cannot charge a flash drive. A flash drive is powered by the USB port of a computer when connected.
A flash drive consists of transistors that will switch on/off and are used to store information. The power to switch on the transistors is derived via the USB port. Once the flash drive is disconnected from the computer, the power source is removed from the drive. For the data to be retained, no source of power is needed.
However, there are issues that can place the flash drive data at risk. For starters, the flash memory of the drive will eventually wear out. Over time, the components of flash memory lose the capability to store information. This happens after thousands of read and write operations, including with media duplication. The estimated life span of a flash drive will depend on the type of memory used.
With a flash drive that has an industrial-grade single-level cell memory, the unit can perform around 100,000 read/write operations. With the more affordable multilevel cell memory option, the read/write operations are limited to 10,000 or so. For most drives, there are five-year warranty options, and in general, users find that the information is secure after the five-year time frame.
If you will be changing files frequently, then a flash drive with limited read/write operations will not be the best option for storing your data. Other factors should also be considered. Environmental conditions can affect data, causing corruption when humidity is high as well as the temperature in the area of use. This can decrease the lifespan of your flash drive.
In general, a common issue for corruption of a flash drive is improper handling of the drive by the user. A flash drive should not be removed from the USB port without utilizing the ejection command. This is specifically true when the flash drive is being used. Users need to use the Safely Remove Hardware or Eject option on your computer to ensure the drive can be removed safely to avoid corruption.
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